This branch was established in 1966. The
Forest Economics Branch collects and compiles forestry
statistical data on regular basis. It maintains data base on
forest area, forest production, afforestation and
regeneration, production of nursery plants, revenue and
expenditure of forest departments, imports of wood and wood
products, wood prices and other related aspects. It carries
out special surveys periodically to determine wood
consumption in various end uses. It conducts economic
analysis of management practices, development projects and
other forestry activities. These data provide a sound basis
for intelligent and effective decision making. Planners and
policy makers use the data for strategic planning and policy
formulation. In addition, lectures on forestry economics are
delivered to the students of M.Sc. and B.Sc. forestry.
It consists of a Forest Economist, an
Assistant Forest Economist, one Research Assistant, three
Computers and two Foresters/Field Assistants.
statistics: Ever since its inception in 1966, the Forest
Economics Branch has been compiling and publishing forestry
statistics of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir regularly on annual
basis. Over the years, steps have been taken to improve
coverage, presentation and reliability of the data.
Hitherto, the data were collected and compiled on the
provincial basis. Latest statistics are available for
on the rotation and economic management of the coniferous
forests of Pakistan. This study was undertaken for economic
evaluation of the system of management prevalent in the
coniferous forests. The system of management in these
forests is based on the Indian Selection System which
allowed only harvesting of trees of diameter size of 60 cm
and more. The study found that the selection system had led
to adoption of long rotation periods sometimes upto 200
years with consequent low yield. The system also resulted in
over-mature stands, uneven regeneration and deficiency in
young age-classes. All this produced very low increment per
ha. Economic analysis based on concept of financial maturity
and soil expectation value brought out that financially best
rotation in these forests ranged between 50-70 years. The
adoption of longer rotation periods is uneconomical and
represents under utilization of the valuable resource. The
study proposed an adjustment period of 50 years over which
all over mature trees would be removed and new system of
management introduced. This would generate revenue which
could be subsequently reinvested in the forestry sector.
Shortening of rotation would also produce young healthy and
vigorous stands which will give higher increment. The
recommendations of the study have been adopted by the forest
departments on experimental basis in some forests.
management of irrigated plantations: This study was
conducted to evaluate economics of irrigated forest
plantations of Punjab and Sindh. In the first place data
were collected on annual increment in different plantations.
The mean annual yield varied from 2.94 m3 in Chichawatni to
10.28 m3 in poplar plantations. Average yield per ha per
year was found to be 5.7 m3 of which timber accounted for
0.7 m3 and the rest was firewood. Based on the prices
prevailing in 1967, the net income per hectare per year
worked out to Rs.363 under the prevailing system of
management with rotation period of 20 years and thinning at
5 year intervals. The study considered other alternative
management practices including charge in thinning regime.
Prolonging the rotation period to 30 years, raising pure
mulberry crops, and raising of fast growing species. It was
found that change in thinning regime could yield net income
of Rs.836 per year per ha. Prolonging of rotation period to
30 years could yield net income of Rs.1238 per year per ha.
Raising of pure mulberry crops could yield net income of
Rs.766 per year per ha. Growing of
on 10 years rotation for pulp wood could yield net income of
Rs.926 per year per ha. And finally growing of poplar for
pulp wood on 10 year rotation could yield net income of
Rs.1667 per year per ha. The study concluded that irrigated
forest plantations could be economically feasible only if
fast growing species are grown there for pulp wood.
of socio-economic conditions of manpower engaged in forestry
and wood based industries in Pakistan: This study was
undertaken with the objective of estimating employment in
forest operations and wood based industries and to study the
socio-economic conditions of the workers. In addition,
timber consumption in various end uses was estimated. It was
found that forestry operations both in public and private
sector and wood based industries employed about 592,000
workers who worked for about 104 million man days annually.
Timber consumption was estimated at 1.650 million m3. Of
this total, building construction accounted for 0.506, wood
containers 0.464, furniture 0.164 and the rest 0.516 million
m3 by other industries.
of tree growth on farmlands of NWFP: This survey was
conducted in 1989 to determine the quantum, species
composition, diameter distributions and location of tree
growth on farmlands in NWFP. It also aimed at developing
estimates of wood removal from the farmlands. A stratified
random sampling scheme was employed. The province was
divided into 2 main blocks: irrigated and non-irrigated.
Each block was sub-divided into 3 zones on the basis of
climatic factors. Sample size was fixed at 800 giving
sampling rate of 0.001. The number of trees per ha was found
to be 72 on irrigated farms and 17 on non-irrigated areas.
The total tree stock on farmlands was estimated at 80
million. 60% of tree stock fell in dia. Class 5-14 cm.
Poplar is the major species accounting for 17% of total
stock, followed by bakain 13.9%,
13.2%, Shisham 10.3%, per 7.6%, mulberry 8.2%, fig 4.8%,
willow 3.3% and the rest 21.6%. Using the available volume
tables, the volume of growing stock was estimated as 14.0
million m3, of which 10.6 (76%) is in irrigated areas and
the rest 3.4 million m3 (23%) in barani areas. The farmers
felled about 11 million trees (13.5% tree stock every year)
and removed 2.9 million m3 of wood (21% of total growing
stock) to meet their own requirements and far purpose of
sale. In order to fully harness potential of farmlands, it
is necessary to provide incentives to the farmers. The study
recommended that extension efforts should be intensified and
social forestry programmes be further expanded.
Tree growth on farmlands of the Punjab: The
farmlands not only cater to food and fibre requirements of
the country but are also a big repository of tree growth.
This is revealed by a survey of tree growth on the farmlands
of the Punjab conducted in 1990-91. According to the survey,
about 2.5 million farms in Punjab with a cultivated area of
11.8 million ha carry a stock of 200 million trees. The
estimated standing volume of these trees amount to 46
million m3. The pre-dominant species is shisham which
accounts for 42% of total tree stock. Other species grown on
farmlands are kikar, bakain, mulberry, ber, tamarix, mango,
poplar, eucalyptus, semal, siris etc. Encouragingly the
proportion of young trees with diameter less than 20 cm is
as high as 60 percent. Farmers generally grow trees in form
of linear plantations along farm boundaries and water
courses. About 87% of trees are linear, 11% scattered and 2%
block/cinoact okabtatuib trees. About 15% farms are without
trees, 46% have between 1-10 trees per ha, 15% farms are
without trees, 46% have between 1-10 trees per ha, 15% have
between 10-20 trees per ha and the rest 24% have more than
20 trees per ha. Over all average number of trees per ha is
17. However, there are wide variations. Northern Zone has 2
times more trees per ha than control and southern zones.
Irrigated farms have 3 times as many trees per ha as the
unirrigated farms. Small farms (less than 2 ha) have 25
trees per ha compared to 12 on medium and 10 on large farms.
The tree growth on the farmlands of the Punjab is estimated
to be roughly equivalent to 0.73 million ha of plantation
forests which is more than the forest area under the control
of forest Department. During 1990-91, farmers felled about
14 million trees and removed about 9.4 million m3 of timber
and firewood. Generally trees with diameter in excess of 25
cm are felled. Shisham accounted for 2/3rd of total volume
removed. On conservation basis, the value of wood removed at
producers price works out to 5.8 billion rupees. The study
brings out that only a fraction of the potential of
farmlands is currently being harnessed. Proper motivation of
the farmers through appropriate package of incentives can go
a long way in boosting up the tree growth on the farmlands.
A study on “Status of tree planting campaigns
in Pakistan” was conducted in 2004. The main objective of
this study was to find out the state of art of tree planting
campaign, past and present, in the country and its causes
for decline. The results of the study were compiled in the
form of a report.
Land covers Atlas of Pakistan: This study was
completed in 2011 to provide scientific monitoring mechanism
of natural resources particularly forest resources. The data
are used in studying economic impacts of land cover changes
and productivity, as well as the spread of invasive species,
habitat and biodiversity loss, climate variability and other